If this is correct, the cytochrome c of all mammals should be equally different from the cytochrome c of all birds.
Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence 2016
from Tasmania (and New Zealand), represent new records. Delimitation and distribution of Frullania tamarisci (L.) Dumort. (Jungermanniopsida, Porellales) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA.
Chiastocaulon conjugatum is excluded from the Australian flora, because previous Australian records are based on misidentifications of C. Pedinophyllum monoicum, reported for Australia from a single locality in Victoria, is excluded from the Australian flora because all credible records are based on misidentifications of Syzygiella tasmanica. Systematic Biology 62, 707–724.| CAS | Chiastocaulon Carl (Plagiochilaceae) based on evidence from nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast gene rps4 sequences.&title=Plant Biology&date=2003&volume=5&spage=615&epage=622&sid=csiro&aulast=Groth&aufirst=H" target="_blank" Heinrichs J, Gradstein SR, Groth H, Linder M (2003) Plagiochila cucullifolia var. Plant Systematics and Evolution 242, 205–216.| Cross Ref | Plagiochila cucullifolia var. Insights into the phylogenetic biogeography of the leafy liverwort Plagiochila with a description of Proskauera, gen. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53, 113–121.| Heinrichs J, Hentschel J, Bombosch A, Fiebig A, Reise J, Edelmann M, Kreier HP, Schäfer-Verwimp A, Caspari S, Schmidt AR, Zhu RL, von Konrat MJ, Shaw B, Shaw AJ (2010) One species or at least eight?
However, the practical application of these methods is challenging because of the exorbitant calculation times required by current methods for contemporary data sizes, the difficulty in correctly modeling the rate heterogeneity in highly diverse taxonomic groups, and the lack of reliable clock calibrations and their uncertainty distributions for most groups of species.
Here, we present a method that estimates relative times of divergences for all branching points (nodes) in very large phylogenetic trees without assuming a specific model for lineage rate variation or specifying any clock calibrations.
It is sometimes called a gene clock or an evolutionary clock.